What is an NDB?

A Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) is a low or medium frequency radio beacon transmits non-directional signals whereby the pilot of an aircraft properly equipped can determine bearings and “home” to the station

The pilot, through the use of an Automatic Direction Finder, uses these signals in order to determine relative/magnetic bearing and therefore position. The entire system consists of the following:

  • Ground station
  • ADF receiver
  • Antenna:
    Loop Antenna (Magnetic Bearing from the airplane to the station)
    Sense Antenna (Directional Information)
    Bearing Indicator

This is the symbol used in Infinite Flight for an NDB.

References: CFI Notebook

777 Wings Airfoil Design

B777 WIP Image – Infinite Flight

The wings on the 777 feature a supercritical airfoil design that is swept back at 31.6 degrees and optimized for cruising at Mach 0.83 (revised after flight tests up to Mach 0.84).

Learn more about the development of the B777 series of aircraft at infiniteflight.com/timeline.

AMA with Nancy Bradshaw Invite

We will be hosting an AMA “Ask Me Anything” with Nancy Bradshaw on Saturday, August 8th, at 20:00 UTC.

Nancy is an airline pilot, commercial ASEL and Helicopter pilot, CFI, CFII, and AGI for airplanes.

She has a Masters in Aerospace Engineering and was a Flight Test Engineer for nine years working on the F16 and F35 platforms.

She’s runs an incredible educational YouTube channel geared towards pilots and those wanting to become pilots, subscribe here. We’d also highly encourage you to check out her website, Fly Good Aviation.

For 1 hour, you will have the opportunity to ask Nancy aviation related questions in the #AMA discussion channel in our Slack. If you are not already part of our community, join here.

Procedures grouped by direction in 20.2

In the 20.2 update, it was just announced yesterday that the procedure selection menu will get a small tweak. To make it easier to select a procedure, each procedure will now grouped by inbound/outbound direction.

WIP Image from Infinite Flight

This is still very much a work in progress, so don’t scrutinize it too much.

This will come as a welcome change for both ATC and pilots alike making it simpler and easier to understand what STARs are being referenced on the map versus the menu.

List of permanently prohibited areas found in the US

Although this is not applicable to Infinite Flight, it is interesting. Here’s a list of some permanently prohibited areas you’ll find in airspace around the United States.

Thurmont, Maryland, site of Presidential retreat Camp David (Prohibited Area 40 or P-40)

Amarillo, Texas, Pantex nuclear assembly plant (P-47)

Bush Ranch near Crawford, Texas (P-49)

Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Georgia (P-50)

Naval Base Kitsap, Washington (P-51)

Washington, D.C., U.S. Capitol, White House, and Naval Observatory (P-56); see other restrictions for information about all Active Prohibited Areas in the Washington D.C./Baltimore Flight Restricted Zone.

Bush compound near Kennebunkport, Maine (P-67)

Mount Vernon, Virginia, home of George Washington (P-73)

Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness in northern Minnesota (P-204, 205, and 206)

You can find all of these prohibited areas marked on a VFR sectional chart, with information including the prohibited area number, altitude (MSL), time of use (in local), controlling agency, and communication frequency. Here’s an example of what to look for on a sectional chart.

References: BoldMethod

Meet our team – Ryan Epps

I’m an IFATC Education Group Writer, a role I’ve held since 2019. I’m also a commercial pilot, flight instructor, and help run the Airport Editing Team, currently as an Airport Editing Manager.

I help to create posts on a wide range of topics, everything from aircraft systems to flight regulations to tips to improve your flying.

Outside of Infinite Flight, I am lucky enough to spend my days flying real airplanes.

  • BS in Professional Flight from Purdue University
  • Commercial Pilot – Instrument Airplane, Airplane Single & Multiengine Land
  • Certified Flight Instructor – Airplane Single & Multiengine, Instrument Airplane
  • Ground Instructor – Basic, Advanced, Instrument
  • Remote Pilot – Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

I utilize those skills to help teach future pilots both in real life and through Infinite Flight. For me, I still keep trying to learn as much about flying as possible. I’m always available to answer a question about flying or controlling.

GE90 Engine on the B77W

The General Electric GE90 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines built by GE Aviation for the Boeing 777, with thrust ratings from 81,000 to 115,000 lbf (360 to 510 kN). It entered service with British Airways in November 1995. It is the most powerful and was the largest jet engine, until its 6 in (15 cm) wider fan successor, the 105,000 lbf (470 kN) GE9X, powered the Boeing 777X first flight in January 2020.

Above is a WHIP image from Infinite Flight of the new reworked B777-300ER’s engine. You can learn more about the progress of the next update, 20.2, at infiniteflight.com/timeline.

Supersonic Titanium

At Mach numbers greater than 2.5, aluminum is no longer an option. The SR-71 was made largely of titanium, which has good high temperature characteristics, but is still light enough for aircraft structures. To allow for the expansion, slip joints are used in many places on the SR-71. On the ground, the SR-71 fuel tanks leak, and they do not seal until the aircraft heats up during flight.

References: BoldMethod, NASA

Dropping gear to reduce drag

Interference drag is generated by the mixing of airflow streamlines between airframe components. For example, between the landing gear strut and the fuselage. As air flows around different aircraft components and mixes, a localized shock wave is formed, creating a drag sum greater than the drag that components would have by themselves.

You have to be mindful though of restrictions in regards to the speed at which you’re flying. There would be no adverse effects on the gear because of your speed but in the real world there are limits.

Trying sticking your hand out the window. When your hand is horizontal like an airfoil, it’s easy to stick outside the window. But when you open your hand into the wind, your hand flies backwards, and requires a lot more force to hold it position.

Dropping the landing gear produces a large amount of form drag. Form drag is the result of an object’s general shape in relation to the relative wind.

Reference: CBoldMethod

Divert commands and their differences

There are several ways you can completely deny incoming aircraft on the tower and radar frequency via the miscellaneous command sub-menu.

“Deny Entry” says “N623KB, Due to heavy traffic, airport is not accepting incoming traffic at this time”. Translation; come back later or divert, but we probably will definitely not be able to accept you any time soon.

“Unable, Divert” says “N623KB, Airport is unable to accept arriving traffic. Please divert to a suitable airport”. Translation; we’re not experiencing heavy traffic per say but we can’t accept you at this time, go somewhere else. You will never be able to land here.

“No Light Aircraft” says “N623KB, No light aircraft accepted at this time. Please divert to a more appropriate airport”. Translation; you can technically land here but your aircraft is so incredibly slow that you’re becoming a major problem, so land somewhere else.

All of these commands are subtly different but can have their own individual uses.