Sourcing Your Argument

January, 18, 2022 by Kyle Boas

The most powerful tool you’ll have in an argument is facts, that back you up. You don’t need to have people to back you up if you have the evidence.

If you are confronted with an opposing view, if you have a source, you can’t be wrong.

That’s why we source our posts on here. Some of the things we talk about aren’t within our expertise. If we source it though with accurate information, no one can question what we’re saying.

Eventually you may build up a credibility within circles of people but there will always be those new people who don’t know you know what you’re talking about. So don’t let your guard down, source everything and you’ll never be proven wrong.

Kyle Boas is the Founder of the IFATC Education Group. He is an IFATC Supervisor and Infinite Flight Appeals team member. — More

What classifies as “variable” winds

January, 17, 2022 by Kyle Boas

In the METAR for an airport you may see VRB or V listed in the meteorologic information. The definition can vary by country, but there is a standardized definition put out by the International Civil Aviation Organization.

V: More than 6 km/h and variation less than 180°. Mean wind direction and variation. Annex 3, §

“1) when the total variation is 60° or more and less than 180° and the wind speed is 6 km/h (3 kt) or more, such directional variations shall be reported as the two extreme directions between which the surface wind has varied”

E.g. 31015G27KT 280V350.

VRB: Less than 6 km/h or variation more than 180°. No mean wind direction. Annex 3, §

“2) when the total variation is 60° or more and less than 180° and the wind speed is less than 6 km/h (3 kt), the wind direction shall be reported as variable with no mean wind direction; or

3) when the total variation is 180° or more, the wind direction shall be reported as variable with no mean wind direction”

E.g. VRB02KT

Kyle Boas is the Founder of the IFATC Education Group. He is an IFATC Supervisor and Infinite Flight Appeals team member. — More

The Buzz-Saw Effect in Modern Turbofan Engines

January, 16, 2022 by Kyle Boas

In most modern turbofan engines, at high engine power operating conditions, the fan tip rotation speed will become supersonic. The noise spectrum from a supersonic fan is very different compared to a fan that is rotating subsonically.

Supersonic fans produce a multitude of high-amplitude tones at harmonics of the engine’s shaft rotation frequency. These tones are known commonly as the “buzz-saw” noise.

One generally needs to sit in front of the engines to hear the buzzsaw noise. This is why, on aircraft with fuselage-mounted engines such as the Boeing 717, most passengers can hear the buzzsaw noise generated. However, on aircraft with wing-mounted engines, this “privilege” is usually reserved for those sitting in front of the wings. Similarly, the buzzsaw can be heard by someone standing on the ground as the plane approaches. However, the effect dissipates somewhat after they are left in the plane’s wake.

In Infinite Flight, as noted by Tyler Shelton, a staff member for Infinite Flight, “The buzz is barely detectable from the flight deck in real life as well. With good headphones or at loud volumes you can still hear it faintly from the cockpit on Infinite Flight (as it should be)“.

You may be able to hear the buzz-saw effect in the most recent teaser of the RR RB211 on the newly reworked B757 that is set to be released in the next update, v20.3.

References: Speedbird Spotter, University of Southampton

Kyle Boas is the Founder of the IFATC Education Group. He is an IFATC Supervisor and Infinite Flight Appeals team member. — More

Magnetic versus True heading

January, 15, 2022 by Kyle Boas

Magnetic heading is your direction relative to magnetic north, read from your magnetic compass. True heading is your direction relative to true north, or the geographic north pole. The difference is due to the magnetic north pole and geographic north pole being hundreds of miles apart.

The Earth rotates about its geographic axis; maps and charts are drawn using meridians of longitude that pass through the geographic poles. Directions measured from the geographic poles are called true directions.

The magnetic North Pole to which the magnetic compass points is not collocated with the geographic North Pole. Directions measured from the magnetic poles are called magnetic directions.

All ATC instructions are sent using the magnetic heading.

References: Chapter 8 of the Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

Kyle Boas is the Founder of the IFATC Education Group. He is an IFATC Supervisor and Infinite Flight Appeals team member. — More


January, 13, 2022 by Kyle Boas

“If you get tired, learn to rest, not to quit.” – Banksy

It is natural after a certain period of time to get burnt out. It’s all about being in touch with your limitations, and set some, like with controlling. The end goal is to have fun, what you’re doing no matter what it is is not a job, even if it literally is a job.

Kyle Boas is the Founder of the IFATC Education Group. He is an IFATC Supervisor and Infinite Flight Appeals team member. — More

Get To Know The Community – Aviation Edition

January, 12, 2022 by Jack Frankie

Aviation is a very welcoming community with jobs and hobbies ranging from air traffic control, ramp agent, to flying planes and even balloons! Read the post here to learn more about some of our very own Infinite Flight Community members and their stories within aviation.

Jack Frankie is a contributor for the IFATC Education Group. He is a Community Moderator for Infinite Flight. He has his private pilot certificate and is a college student at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University majoring in Aviation Business Administration.

Sequencing, speed commands and 360s without approach

January, 11, 2022 by ButterAllDay

I got out of a local session at Madrid Barajas (LEMD) around a day ago, and I did not have approach to help me. At the time, Madrid was the hub on the ATC schedule.

To handle these busy airspaces without approach, you need to go back to the basics.

Remember what you were taught while in training. The most important thing to do in this situation is to sequence. The planes need to know what plane they are following.

Speed commands are another important thing to use in this situation. A lot of times, the separation will be low, so you can use speed commands to make the separation what it needs to be. Left/right 360s are another great thing to use in this situations.

If a speed command cannot resolve the spacing issue, simply issue a 360. Do not panic, be confident in yourself. If you use these things that I talked about, it will make your session without approach in a busy airspace much easier.

ButterAllDay is a contributor for the IFATC Education Group. He is an IFATC Specialist and Grade 4 pilot. He is a real-world plane spotter.

Different Types of VORs

January, 10, 2022 by Yacht

A quick important disclaimer — the following information does not carry over into Infinite Flight as of update 21.8, and all VORS behave and can be utilized in a uniform manner in-app. You might not know it from Infinite Flight alone, but VORs come in a few different varieties.

There are two different types of VORs in real-life.

The Plain VOR

A navigation station that provides azimuth reference information so that you can determine your relative position to the station. Second is the VOR/DME, which is a VOR with the added capability of DME, distance measuring equipment. This type of VOR station allows aircraft with a DME receiver to reference their slant range distance to the station.


A VORTAC provides the same added distance information that a VOR/DME does, but instead uses the military TACAN equipment to do so as opposed to DME. This requires
different receiving equipment than a DME
receiver. Each VOR, no matter which type,
is also classified by their standard service volume (SSV). A service volume is a three dimensional area inside which, if tuned to the VORs correct frequency, it can the VORs correct frequency, it can be guaranteed that you will be receiving
that VOR and that VOR alone. Think of
service volumes as midair cylinders with
certain sizes defined by radius and altitude.

Currently, there are three types of service volumes, and each VOR is bound to only one of the three. They are Terminal, Low, and High.


Terminal VORs have the smallest service volume- a 25NM radius from 1000 to 12000 feet.


Low VORs have a service volume of a 40NM radius from 1000 to 18000 feet.


High VORs have the largest service volume by far- a 40NM radius from 1000 to 14500 feet, a 100NM radius from 14500 to 18000 feet, a 130NM radius from 18000 to 45000 feet, and a 100NM radius from 45000 to 60000 feet.

How can you find this information for a given VOR? VOR types are charted with different symbology on VFR and IFR enroute charts, for example.

This information, along with service volume type, can also be found in associated Chart Supplements.

Does any of this information matter for use in Infinite Flight? No. All VORs in Infinite Flight have an unlimited service volume and are classified simply as VOR in-app, regardless if they might be a VOR/
18000 feet. I hope it was interesting to learn that there’s a lot more that goes into VORs when it comes to our real-life navigation network.

Here’s what the regulation says:

(c) Operation below DA/DH or MDA. Except as provided in § 91.176 of this chapter, where a DA/DH or MDA is applicable, no pilot may operate an aircraft, except a military aircraft of the United States, below the authorized MDA or continue an approach below the authorized DA/DH unless –

(1) The aircraft is continuously in a position from which a descent to a landing on the intended runway can be made at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers, and for operations conducted under part 121 or part 135 unless that descent rate will allow touchdown to occur within the touchdown zone of the runway of intended landing;

(2) The flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the standard instrument approach being used; and

(3) Except for a Category II or Category III approach where any necessary visual reference requirements are specified by the Administrator, at least one of the following visual references for the intended runway is distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot:

(i) The approach light system, except that the pilot may not descend below 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation using the approach lights as a reference unless the red terminating bars or the red side row bars are also distinctly visible and identifiable.
(ii) The threshold.
(iii) The threshold markings.
(iv) The threshold lights.
(v) The runway end identifier lights.
(vi) The visual glideslope indicator.
(vii) The touchdown zone or touchdown zone markings.
(viii) The touchdown zone lights.
(ix) The runway or runway markings.
(x) The runway lights.

What does this mean in less formal English? It means you can’t descend below minimums unless these three criteria are all met:

A. You can proceed normally to landing without having to do a ridiculous rate of descent or a 90 degree bank, for example.
B. The visibility that you are observing from the cockpit is at or better than the one in your approach.
C. You can see one of the 10 runway elements listed above.

If these three are met, you can proceed lower to land.

Yacht is a contributor for the IFATC Education Group. He is an IFATC officer and IFVARB leader. In real life, he holds a private pilot certificate and is working towards his instrument rating.

IFATC Trainer Roundtable

January, 9, 2022 by Kyle Boas

Today at 10AM PST / 1PM EST / 18:00 UTC we will be hosting a live conference between members of the IFATC Training team.

Anyone is invited to listen, all you have to do is join our Discord server to participate.

The trainers will be going over patterns they’ve been seeing in training, offering tips on how to pass local or radar practical tests, and answering your questions live.

If we see people are interested and like these types of events we have a few more ideas for future interactive live get togethers including things like live tutorials. Imagine for example, in a small group setting, being able to fly with and get a lesson on how to fly the reworked E175 from a real-world pilot.

Kyle Boas is the Founder of the IFATC Education Group. He is an IFATC Supervisor and Infinite Flight Appeals team member. — More

Don’t settle for average

January, 8, 2022 by Matei G.
  • “Don’t settle for average. Bring your best to the moment. Then, whether it fails or succeeds, at least you know you gave all you had.” — Angela Bassett
  • Matei G. is a writer for the IFATC Education Grouo. He is in multiple VAs, he’s an aviation passionate, he likes helping people out in the whole Infinite Flight Community. He’s grade 3, soon to be 4. He has a lot of things to talk about and likes pancakes!